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Successful Weight Loss E-Book

Food Facts

The Magic of Fiber


Fiber is found in plant foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, beans and peas, vegetables and fruits, and nuts and seeds. It's part of the plant that we can't digest and therefore, it moves through the intestines at a faster pace, whisking other calories out of the body with it.

Think of fiber as many fine threads (such as shredded wheat cereal) which wrap around each other as they travel through the intestinal tract, tying up calories in the process.

A typical person who doubles his fiber intake could lose 9-10 pounds over the course of a year without reducing his calorie intake. Fiber cuts calories by blocking the digestion of some of the fat consumed with it.

Fiber cuts calories in more straightforward ways as well. Most high-fiber foods are low in calories and fat, so if you eat more of them, you'll eat fewer calories and less fat. Because high-fiber foods tend to be bulky, they satisfy hunger quickly, before you have a chance to overeat and it keeps you full into your next meal.

Fiber plays a big role in keeping you healthy. Researchers found that those who ate the highest amount of fiber had a 34% reduced risk for developing heart disease. Fiber can help keep your body young in other ways too, by reducing your risk for age-related conditions such as stroke, cancer and diabetes.

For best results, aim for 30 grams of fiber daily, spread out over the day. Eat a bowl of high-fiber cereal or oatmeal at least five times a week. Look for whole grain cereal that has at least 5 grams of fiber per serving. Top it with a handful of raspberries or blueberries for even better nutrition. Can't beat that!

Fiber-Rich Foods
Here are some of the best choices of high fiber cereals:
 
Grams per Serving
General Mills Fiber One           14 g
Kellogg's All-Bran Bran Buds   13 g
Kellogg's All-Bran                    10 g
Kellogg's Raisin Bran               10 g
Kasha's Go-Lean                      10 g
Post 100% Bran                          8 g
General Mills Multi-Bran Chex   7 g

There are two types of fiber, Soluble and Insoluble. They each play their own role in keeping you healthy.

Soluble fiber, such as in oatmeal, oat bran, beans, peas, citrus fruits and strawberries, bind with cholesterol in the intestines, preventing its absorption into the bloodstream.

Insoluble fiber foods keep your body's digestive system humming and healthy, and is found in foods such as prunes, apple with skin, carrots, cabbage and whole grain products.

Replace your breads and pastas with whole grain. Avoid food labels that list "Enriched" as part of the first ingredient.

Important Fact: Enriched flour is highly processed and has sugar added in the process. Nearly 50-80 % of nutrients are lost when grains are refined.

Whole grain products are closest to their original form and will give you the highest fiber benefits.

Unrefined grains, such as whole wheat, brown rice, oats, corn and rye are nature's own wrinkle-preventers. They contain antioxidants, which slow the signs of aging both inside and outside of the body.

Antioxidants - Healing Foods
 
There is direct evidence that certain foods can help prevent or relieve disorder that include heart disease, cancer and even Alzheimer's disease.  Fruits and vegetables head the list.  Their disease-fighting power comes from natural chemicals known as antioxidants.  These are a classification of several substances, including Vitamins A, C & E, Selenium (a mineral) and are found in various foods that are unprocessed, like whole grains, fresh fruits and fresh vegetables, especially brilliantly colored ones, such as red-ripe tomatoes, peppers and dark greens are loaded with beta-carotene, lutein and lycopene, an extremely potent antioxidant.  Tea, coffee, grape juice and chocolate (yes, chocolate) as well as red wine can deliver resveratrol, which raises the level of good HDL cholesterol.  Spinach is a top source of lutein as well as other related antioxidants.  A little-known fact:  Oregano (spice) has up to 30 times the radical-fighting power of potatoes and 40 times that of apples!  Berries such as raspberries and blueberries are known to be wrinkle-preventers.  Top your cereal with these whenever possible or add them to a cup of low-fat yogurt for a sweet health-packed treat!

 
In good amounts, antioxidants are known to repair the body by cleaning the cells of pollutants, smoke and other environmental factors.   Most health professionals say that getting enough antioxidants, especially in fruits and vegetables, is one of the best things we can do for our health.  They will keep your immune system in-check, fighting off disease and common ailments. 

 
Fiber in Fruits & Vegetables
 
When you choose most fruits and vegetables, you can simply eat more food and still lose weight, not to mention live a healthier lifestyle. To successfully lose or maintain your desired weight, fruits and vegetables are probably the single most practical food strategy there is. Evidence shows that there's a direct relationship between how many vegetables you eat every day and how thin you are or can become. You can also add 10 years to your life with these high fiber, heart-healthy nutritious choices.

Your goal is to aim for 9 servings of fruits and vegetables every day. Generally, a serving equals cup of fresh or canned vegetables, 1 cup of raw leafy vegetables, a medium-size piece of fruit, or cup of canned or fresh fruit. (Watch for high sugar and calorie content in most canned fruits.) Fresh is best!

For the broadest benefits, try to eat at least one serving daily from each of the following groups:

Garlic, onions, leeks and chives - These foods contain allylic sulfurs, which help lower cholesterol.

Citrus fruits and berries - These are loaded with antioxidants and folate which have been shown to lower the incidence of several types of cancer and reduce the risk of heart disease.  Also good for the skin.

Deep orange and dark green fruits and vegetables - These fight cancer and macular degeneration, an age-related disease that can lead to blindness.

When it comes to vitamin content of fruits and vegetables, the more vibrant the color, the better it is for you. Extra color is a sign of extra nutrients.

Cruciferous Vegetables - Broccoli, cabbage, kale and cauliflower also provide the cancer-fighting benefits.

Legumes - These foods are from the bean and pea family and supply fiber and protein. Eat a handful of nuts (yes, high in calories, keep it at a handful!) 3 times per week for a healthy heart.

FACT:  You can basically eat as much as you want of fruits and vegetables. The fiber will fill you up before the calories become a concern. So fill your plate with lots of these foods.

Make vegetables your favorite way, steamed with herbs & spices, or eat them raw in a salad. Mix fruits and try some you've never had before for a new taste experience.

When you're in the mood for a good crunchy snack (carrots, radishes, cucumbers) or even a sweet soft treat (kiwi, watermelon, avocado), you can always find a healthy alternative to candy or fats with fruits and vegetables.

Proteins

Why do you need protein? This nutrient is vital for the body's healing process, building strong bones and muscles, and boosting your energy supply. Also, by choosing lean sources in your meals, you'll feel full longer.

When you choose lean proteins, such as low-fat dairy, fish, seafood or skinless chicken and turkey, or even extra lean beef, you'll consume up to half the fat without shrinking your portion size. Examples to avoid are hamburger (choose lean sirloin instead), bacon, hotdogs and sausage, which are also high in sodium from processing.

Combining protein with complex-carbohydrates at every meal will cut down on your cravings for sweets. That's because protein is digested more slowly and will keep you full longer. Protein-rich foods should definitely be included in your first meal of the day. Adding a teaspoon of peanut butter to whole-grain toast will satisfy your hunger well into your next meal.

Protein helps to diminish a jump in blood sugar that occurs when you eat sweets, such as doughnuts and sugary foods. These sugar 'rushes' are quickly followed by low energy and sweet cravings and they pack fat in your fat cells fast.

Replacing sweet morning foods with protein rich foods will improve your body and mind, and give you a good jump on your daily nutritional needs.
There is evidence that eating protein-rich foods in proper proportion keeps your immune system properly working as well as keeping you mentally sharp. This is another good reason to include protein in your diet throughout the day.
Some protein-rich foods include:

Beans                Cottage Cheese        Tofu
Beef                   Liver                         Cheese
Eggs                  Lentils                      Nuts
Soy Products      Spinach                    Seafood
Chicken              Turkey                      Fish
Pork                   Yogurt   
Skim Milk
 
You should get 50-60% of your daily calories in the form of protein-rich foods.

Carbohydrates
 
Carbohydrates are used by the body for energy. Total carbohydrates are made up of simple sugars, complex carbohydrates, and fiber. Although it is true that eating too many carbohydrates can be turned into body fat from inactivity, the healthiest way to control carb intake is to modify rather than restrict or cut them drastically. Your daily carbohydrate intake should be around 35-45% of total calories. Instead of counting every gram or calorie, you should simply eat small amounts throughout the day with each meal. This will assure your blood sugar stays on an even level.

Simple carbohydrates are easily identified by their taste: sweet. Sources of simple carbohydrates include table sugar, candy and sweets, sodas and bakery goods. These foods provide empty calories, which supply no vitamins and minerals and should be kept to a bare minimum in your diet.

However, these sources make a good energy fuel during prolonged moderate-intensity exercise, and keeps your blood glucose level in check during those times. Simple carbs go directly to your blood stream, which is why you may feel a 'sugar rush' when consuming sweetened foods on an empty stomach.  If you perform intense endurance exercise, you may need this type of carbs in your diet.

The empty-nutrients of these simple carbs are caused by the altering processes which strip them of much of their original food value during manufacturing.

Many of the carbohydrates we consume come from highly processed cereals and grains, both products of the agricultural revolution. Our bodies are not genetically designed to thrive on large amounts of these fiberless complex carbs.  With the popularity of processed cereal- and grain-based "health diets," people are actually depending on the wrong foods to make them healthy.

Complex carbohydrates include all the complex starches and fiber, such as those found in whole grain cereals, breads, rice and all vegetables, including starchy vegetables like potatoes, corn, peas and beans. They contain many essential nutrients and supply the body's fuel for muscles and brain function. They are very low in fat and should be the primary source of all carbs in your diet.

Dietary fiber is a complex carbohydrate. High fiber vegetables are the healthiest choices for human nutrition, and intake of these foods is associated with lower incidences of hypertension, cancer, arthritis, and diabetes.

Complex carbs with lots of fiber should be consumed in proper proportion for maximum health and vitality. They contain rich sources of necessary vitamins and minerals as well as enzymes when in the raw state. Some good examples are dark green, leafy vegetables, broccoli and kale.

Some low fiber, complex carbs (starchy) are bananas, tomatoes, squash, breads and pastas, potatoes and rice and should be eaten in moderation.

 
Sugar

The substance called glucose is a sugar found in its natural state in fruits and vegetables which is the key material in the metabolic processes of all organic life forms. It is always present in the blood and is often referred to as "blood sugar".

As you have just learned from the carbohydrate section of this guide, you should get as much of your sugar intake from fresh fruit and vegetables as possible which will regulate your blood glucose level, adding to your health. Refined sugars, or table sugar, have an opposite effect and overstimulate your insulin response which results in storage of fat and increased appetite.

Refined sugar (White) - As sugar beets are processed, 90% of the fibrous material is removed. This strips the plant of vitamins and minerals. What remains is a sterile, pure carbohydrate that the human body can do without.

Sugar is, in a sense, an anti-nutrient and increases the need for nutrients in the body. You have probably experienced symptoms from over-consumption which give you a "sugar rush" feeling of energy, shortly leaving you feeling lethargic, tired and irritable.

Refined sugar, however, is a source of calories which is found not only in the sugar bowl. Processed fruit juices and iced teas are high in refined sugar and are usually high in calories.

That glass of orange juice in the morning may not be the healthiest choice because it is packed with sugar. Fresh squeeze your own juice for the ultimate nutritional effects on your body, or look for low-sugar juices available. If you find sugar within the first four ingredients listed on the package label, you may want to rethink your selection and look for a healthier alternative.

Also avoid refined flours found in enriched breads and pastas in which sugar is also added. Try to stick to whole grain breads, flours and pastas to improve the nutritional value of your diet whenever possible.

It has been found that over time, over-consumption of refined white sugar can cause diabetes, obesity and contribute to heart problems.

Watch your food labels, especially on snacks claiming "low fat", such as puddings and yogurt, as they are sweetened up to replace the fats for flavor. Refined sugar directly turns to fat. You should use it in moderation.
 
 
Fat

Let's face it, fat adds flavor. Nobody wants to continue a bland diet. Eating a moderate-fat, portion-controlled meal not only tastes better, it increases your odds of sticking to your nutritional changes. You can also use extra spices to wake up the flavor in place of fats.

Fat, in moderation, is an important part of your diet as it is present in part of every single cell. It even helps your mental processes (your brain consists of about 2/3 fat). The problem with fat consumption is that most individuals consume too much of the wrong kind.

The Good
Monounsaturated fats, found in nuts, fish, avocados and oils such as olive oil, peanut oil and canola oil are actually good for you. They should substitute animal fat wherever possible in your diet. 1-3 servings per day is a healthy way to keep your cells nourished with good fat.

Fish also offer omega-3 fats which is another source of good fat you should concentrate in your diet. By eating fish (especially fatty fish such as salmon, sardines, herring or mackerel) two to three times per week, you can greatly improve your health, lower your cholesterol, and nourish your immune system.

Polyunsaturated fat also helps lower blood cholesterol levels, [however, certain types may also lower good cholesterol (HDL) levels]. Foods rich in polyunsaturated fat include vegetable oils like corn, safflower, soybean and sunflower seeds, and most salad dressings. Use these over saturated fats, but still in moderation.

The Bad
Saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature and are largely found in meats and dairy foods such as whole milk, cream, cheese and butter. Animal fat (saturated) and hydrogenated oils (trans-fatty acids) are the type that should be limited. Choose extra lean cuts of meat--they will give enough saturated fat for your brain to function, yet keep unneeded fatty build-up (cholesterol) away from your artery walls. Saturated fat raises blood cholesterol levels and increases your risk of heart disease. Reducing this type of fat to less than 10% of daily calories will help you lower your cholesterol level and maintain or reach your desired weight when combined with a well-balanced diet. Use low-fat dairy products whenever possible to avoid overdoing the saturated fats in your diet.

The Ugly
Trans Fats, also called trans-fatty acids, is another type of saturated fat, found in margarines and shortenings. Trans-fats are actually liquid vegetable oils processed with hydrogen to make them solid. (Yuk!) These should be used sparingly as they may raise cholesterol levels and lead to clogged arteries. These can take their toll on your heart and are bad for your overall health. Eliminate these wherever possible. If you see a food label that only breaks down fat as follows:  8 grams total fat, but only 3 grams of saturated, 1 (or none) monosaturated then the remaining fat content would most likely be trans-fats.  Watch for the fat breakdown to know what you're really eating.  Food companies tend to hide this information as the public becomes aware of it's unhealthy toll on the body, however, the FDA is finally requiring food companies to list this information in the next couple of years.

In summary, using pure olive oil or unhydrogenated canola oil instead of vegetables oil, butter & margarine is your heathiest alternative. Brush your toast or bread with olive oil. You will benefit greatly from these small changes.   Keep in mind, although this change will be good for you, even monosaturated fats have high calorie counts which will add to your overall daily calorie intake, so be sure to still keep a check on the portion sizes of these brain-healthy fats.
 
 
Calcium
 
The secret weight loss weapon!  Many people avoid dairy products when dieting or changing their food plan.  This is an awful mistake, don't make it!  Increasing your calcium with actually cause you to burn more fat from around your middle.  Extensive research proves that dieters who consumed calcium-rich dairy (especially yogurt) achieved enormous success in both weight and fat loss.  The secret here is to choose low-sugared, low-fat yogurts, low-fat cheeses and dairy products to keep the saturated fat and calorie counts low.  You need to eat about 1,200 - 1,400 milligrams of calcium, or 3 servings per day.   This will also help build bone density, helping to avoid osteoporosis in your later years.
 
According to a recent study, popping calcium pills does not give you the same benefits as eating actual dairy.  Though women who used supplemental calcium were better off than those who didn't, their weight loss wasn't nearly as much as the women eating dairy-rich foods.  Numerous weight loss studies confirm that as calcium intake goes up, bodyweight and bodyfat go down.  Try to fit in a glass of milk 1-2 times per day, use low or non-fat.  Also find calcium-rich, low sugar treats, such as yogurts and specialty ice-creams.  Imagine that next ice-cream cone being good for you.  Do your homework with food labels to find the best pick.

Water, the Magic Potion!


Everyone has heard the recommendation of "8 glasses of water a day". Actually, those 64 ounces of water should be your minimum daily consumption.  You should drink a half of an ounce for every pound of body weight (150 lbs = 75 oz.)

Although most take it for granted, water is quite possibly the single most important catalyst in losing or maintaining weight and keeping your body healthy and hydrated. Water is an essential element of weight loss. Filling up on water can squelch that food craving. It will also make you feel full faster, causing you to consume less food at your meal.

Tip: Drinking ice water can help you burn even more calories, because your body uses calories to warm the water before digesting it.   However, it's also been known that guzzling (different than sipping) ice cold beverages can be harmful to your liver, so take down icy colds slowly.

More than of our body consists of water, filling virtually every space in your cells and between them. Every organ and bodily function depends on it. In the course of a day, the average person loses 2-3 quarts of water. The goal is to replace that lost fluid and keep the body functioning properly.

If you exercise, it is important to drink more than the recommended amount of water daily. Drink before, during and after exercise in small sips (gulping causes blood flow to your stomach, away from the muscles and organs needing it during exercise).

You can never overdo water consumption; your body will simply flush any excess out.


Make it easy to get the right amount:

  • Find a 64 oz. pitcher or glass and fill it to the mark so you can visualize how much water you need.
  • Carry a 20 oz water bottle and try to drink at least four of them per day (with and between meals). 
  • Add lemon or lime to your water for a more enjoyable flavor experience.
  • Begin every meal with a glass of water--you will avoid over-eating which can save a lot of calories, reaching your goals more easily.
  • Realize the difference between thirst and hunger. Being mildly dehydrated will fool you into thinking you are hungry, when in reality, your body is only asking for a drink of water. Try a glass of water first before going for that cookie; you may just feel that craving disappear. 
  • Drink a glass of water while preparing a meal. This will help to avoid overeating and 'over-tasting' the meal in process. It's a good way to avoid extra calories.
  • Keep water with you whenever possible, whether at your desk, on the road or cleaning the house..flush impurities out of your body!

Additional Facts:

  • 75% of Americans are chronically dehydrated.
  • In 37% of Americans, the thirst mechanism is so weak that it is often mistaken for hunger.
  • Even MILD dehydration will slow down one's metabolism as much as 3%.
  • One glass of water shuts down midnight hunger pangs for almost 100% of the dieters studied in a U-Washington study.
  • Lack of water is the #1 trigger of daytime fatigue.
  • Preliminary research indicates that 8-10 glasses of water a day could significantly ease back and joint pain for up to 80% of sufferers.
  • A mere 2% drop in body water can trigger fuzzy short-term memory, trouble with basic math, and difficulty focusing on the computer screen

foodlabel2.jpg

Food Labels
How to Read Them

Food labels can be confusing, however, with a little guidance, they allow you to comparison shop and make informed food choices. By learning to read a label, you can get a variety of foods that meet your nutritional needs.

Food claims are often made on packages such as "low fat" or "no cholesterol", but are these trustworthy? Not always.

Although the FDA only allows claims on labels that are supported by scientific evidence, you still need to be cautious as a "low fat" snack can be loaded with sugar, which ultimately turns to fat. Even a low-fat food such as pretzels can be high in sodium or low in nutrition. In fact, it is best to eat foods closest to their natural source. Eating whole-grain pretzels are a better pick than enriched; unbuttered popcorn is an even better choice because it is high in fiber.

Food companies may also make claims such as no cholesterol (meaning there is no animal fat used in making the product), but that does not necessarily mean the product is really low in fat. Check the labels.

Here are specific meanings to fat claims:
Reduced fat has 25% less fat than the same regular brand.
Light means the product has 50% less fat than the same regular product.
Low fat means a product has 3 grams of fat per serving of 2 tablespoons.
 
 
Food Label Contents

Serving Size and Servings per Container
Food labels provide nutritional information per serving. At the top of each food label you'll see a serving size amount. The serving size is the amount of food you need to eat to get the amount of nutrients listed below it.

"Servings per Container" tells you how many servings are in the whole package. So if a serving is 1 cup, and the entire package has 5 cups, the listed calories and nutrients refer only to that 1 cup serving. Some people are misled to think that a package (of soup, for instance) is one serving, which causes way too many calories to be consumed. This is important to watch, especially with small packages.

These quantities are based on the amount people generally eat, and they are determined by the manufacturer. Serving sizes are not necessarily recommended amounts, but common ones.

Calories and Calories From Fat
Although calorie requirements vary for each person depending on age, weight, gender, and activity level, food labels are based on a diet of 2,000 calories a day. The number always listed on the left of the food label, "Calories", indicates how many calories are in one serving of the food. The number on the right, "Calories from Fat", tells the total number of calories that come from fat in one serving. The label breaks out fat because more and more people want to be aware of the amount of fat in their diet. However, it does not always break it down into all types of fat, which is covered in more detail in the Food Facts section of this guide.

Percent of Daily Values
Percent of daily values, like serving sizes, are based on an average 160-pound adult male who consumes 2,000 calories a day. They are listed in the right-hand column in percentages, and tell you how much of a certain nutrient you will get from eating one serving of that food. Your daily goal is to eat 100% of each of those nutrients listed. If a serving of a food shows 18% protein per serving, then that food is providing only 18% of your daily protein needs for a diet of 2,000 calories per day.

"Percent of Daily Value" is most useful for determining whether a food is high or low in certain nutrients. Use the following as a guide.

5% or Less Low in nutrient
10%-19% Good source of nutrient
Over 20% High in nutrient


Protein
This number tells you how much protein is in a single serving of this food, and is usually measured in grams. About 40% of your calories should come from protein daily.


Total Fat
This number indicates how much fat is in a single serving of food, and is usually measured in grams. The different types of fats are discussed in length under "Food Facts".

Important Fact: As mentioned previously, trans-fat is unhealthy, but is not required by the FDA (yet) to be listed on Nutrition Labels. Here is an easy way to figure how much of this bad fat is in your food:

Take total fat, minus saturated, polyunsaturated, and monounsaturated fat, what's left = trans-fats 

Cholesterol and Sodium
These numbers tell you how many milligrams of cholesterol and sodium (salt) are in a serving of this food. People with medical problems may need to monitor their sodium and cholesterol intake, so these amounts are listed prominently on food labels.

Sodium intake should be limited to 2400 mg. per day.

Cholesterol comes in two forms LDL (bad) which clog arteries and HDL (good) which carry cholesterol away from arteries back to the liver where it is used. Unfortunately, it is not broken down on food labels.

Total Carbohydrate
Carbohydrates are usually measured in grams, and this number indicates how much carbohydrate is in a single serving of this food. They are sometimes broken down further, reflecting sugar content. Recent findings on low-carb eating suggest only 35% of your daily calories should come from carbohydrates, differing greatly from the outdated US recommendation of 50-60%.  See the chapter "Why Low-Carb Works" for more in-depth information.

Vitamin A and Vitamin C
Vitamin A and vitamin C are two especially important vitamins, and that is why they are listed on the Nutrition Facts label. They are vital for a healthy immune system. They contain antioxidants which clean the bloodstream of toxins such as pollution and smoke.

It's required that food companies list the amounts of vitamin A and C, and if they want to, they can also list the amounts of other vitamins. (Cereals often do this.)

Calcium and Iron
The percentages of these two important minerals are listed here also, and measured in percent daily values. Food companies are required to list the amounts of calcium and iron.

Calcium is needed for strong bones and will help you better metabolize foods. As previously mentioned, there is a direct link between the proper amount of calcium (especially for women) and the ability to control weight more easily, especially when taken in through food sources. If you are not getting the recommended amount of calcium daily, you should consider adding yogurt to your meals.

Iron should also be taken in through food sources. As a supplement it has been known to cause possible side effects of an arthritic-like joint pain or stiffness. If you are taking iron supplements, check with your doctor to be sure you need them.

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Food Pyramid
A Nutritional Guide

The Food Pyramid has been followed through the years by experts and the general public alike. In recent years, it was changed by nutritionalists to reflect the need for more fruits and vegetables, and less meat and fat in our diets. The problem with modern man's obesity in comparison to our lean ancestors is that we now consume high-fat, highly processed foods, and tend to leave out the important staples of fiber found in naturally grown foods such as whole grains, vegetables and fruit.

In line with these food pyramid guidelines of servings per day, the following are serving sizes per food group:

1 Serving Equals:

Dairy                                                                 Fruits
Milk or Yogurt = 1 Cup                                 1 Medium apple, orange
Natural Cheese = 1 oz.                              cup fresh (chopped)
Processed Cheeses = 2 oz.                             cooked or canned 
                                                                     cup natural fruit juice


Vegetables                                                 Bread, Cereal, Rice & Pasta
1 cup raw leafy vegetables                         1 slice of bread
cup cooked or raw other veggies            1 oz. cereal
cup vegetable juice                                 cooked cereal, rice pasta


Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs & Nuts
2-3 oz. cooked lean meat, poultry, fish
cup cooked dry beans,
1 egg Each count as 1 oz. of meat
2 tablespoons peanut butter


Next Chapter - Why Low-Carb Works

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